Wits Art Museum

Conceived in 2005, the Wits Art Museum, is set to be opened in May 2012 with its first exhibition.

With echoes of the inviting ramps that draw one up into the spaces at the Guggenheim Museum in New York, and to a lesser extent the Hector Pieterson Museum in Soweto, Wits Art Museum (WAM) has several levels of galleries linked by similar ramps and a polite staircase or two, giving it a stylish fluidity.

WAM takes the space of the former Shell garage on the corner of Jan Smuts Avenue and Jorissen Street in Braamfontein, incorporating the fat columns of the garage, as well as the curved roof, now a voluptuous balcony in the gallery. The university has thrown in sections of two other buildings, giving WAM 5 000 square meters of space over four floors, half of which will be available to display some of its fabulous collection of 9 000 pieces.

“It’s been a long journey. We are so thrilled that it’s actually happened,” says the chief curator, Julia Charlton.

The opening exhibition, on 12 May, will consist of 300 to 400 pieces. To be called WAM! Seeing Stars, it will contain “works that are stars”, she says, with some excitement.

Ideas that she and the special projects curator, Fiona Rankin-Smith, are playing with for this exhibition are Durant Sihlali’s 1975 “Cocopan pushers, No 6 shaft, Roodepoort Deep Mines”, a watercolour depicting the working experience of miners. “He was one of the pioneers who engaged with the working conditions of black South Africans during the apartheid era,” explains Charlton.

Willem Boshoff’s 1997 “Abamfusa Lawula” or “The purple shall govern” is likely to be wheeled out too. It captures a day in Cape Town in the 1980s, when the police turned a water canon laced with purple dye on the crowds, only to have the hose turned around to spray them.
Sam Nhlengethwa’s 1990 “It left him cold – the death of Steve Biko”, is top of the list too, “a celebrity in our collection”, says Charlton.

Carved wooden sculptures, Ndebele beadwork, paintings and drawings from across Africa, representing different eras, cultures and societies, are also being considered for the exhibition.
The journey

The journey to WAM was conceived in 2005. Two years earlier, a space analysis was done, an effort to locate the best home on campus for the museum. Then a design team was selected through a competition. Once this was complete, the fundraising started in earnest.

A special three-sided brick was made for the exterior of the museum. Wits chipped in with R10-million. Other major donors are Linda Givon, Rick and Caroline Menell, the CJ Petrow Foundation, professor Phillip Tobias, and artist William Kentridge, who donated a work that was auctioned. Three-and-a-half years later, R38,5-million was in the bank, and construction started in April 2010.

WAM’s face to the street and Braamfontein is transparent, with huge glass windows titillating the interest of passers-by with its double-volume expanse of light and space.

The six original garage columns define the space, reaching up into the second floor and creating a natural bond between the two floors. The garage’s curved balcony has become “a reference for our design interventions”, say architects Nina Cohen and Fiona Garson.

This ground floor space will contain a coffee shop, and more durable artworks along its interior wall, those that will not be affected by the sun that streams in.

The coffee shop is expected to draw students and the public into the museum. But already there is a constant flow of students through the foyer up into the building for lectures, bringing a buzz to the space before it even opens.

But it is behind these spaces that the real action will take place. Here, a double-volume gallery is complete, with a hint of the curves in the front in the ceiling and edging of the ramps, a contrast to the square columns. Recessed lighting under ceiling lips illuminates the walls, complementing the glow from the numerous spotlights.

During construction terrazzo and polished concrete floors were uncovered, a perfect counterpoint to the yards of spotless white walls. “The polished concrete talks to the old tiles,” says Charlton.

The ramp leads up to a large exhibition space, the favourite area of Kentridge and photographer David Goldblatt, she adds.

The main gallery, with sparkling white walls and curved ceiling. The surprise discovery of two basements not in the building plans was welcomed – they have been converted into exhibition space, with the same defining columns. It is in the final stages of being waterproofed.

Behind the galleries are the neat storerooms, now being packed with the months of carefully wrapped artworks. Charlton points with pride to the acid-free cushioning that cradles the small items, like pipes and wooden combs.

There is also space for the research, teaching and administrative functions of WAM.

The architects found that linking three separate buildings was a challenge. Their aim was to create a “seamless flow” between them, which they have done flawlessly.

The inspiration for their design lies in two areas. “Firstly, the siting of the project on the edge of campus allowed us to link the museum and therefore Wits to Braamfontein,” says Garson.
“Our intention [was] to allow the public to directly engage with the museum through a public forecourt and glass facades into the museum exhibition spaces from street level.”

And secondly, there was the desire to give “expression to the stores which house the museum’s vast treasure of African and other art”.

The exterior walls of these stores on the second floor consist of trapezium-shaped bricks, giving the impression of a woven texture and echoing the rich textures of the baskets and beadwork in the collection. “The brick makes reference to the brick buildings of Johannesburg as well as [echoes] the textures of African craft. The extra brick skin also contributes to efficiency of the optimally controlled climate for the storage of the collection,” says Garson.

Wits and the architects have tried to be green-friendly. Besides the footprint of the old petrol station in the columns and balcony, sparkling blue tiles in the entrance foyer and along sections of the outer wall, inlaid with metal pegs from louvres that have been removed, have been retained. Brass discs have been added to the pegs, reminiscent of elements of beadwork in the collection.

Old chairs and benches have been refurbished, and give the gallery a trendy, retro feel.
This recycling of furniture was partly motivated by funding restrictions, admits Charlton. But the discipline of the restriction was a good exercise, she adds.

It was a good discipline for the architects, too. They say that a reduced budget and “the necessary ‘value engineering’ that followed allowed us to distil the design and give clear expression to the core design principals”. And those design principals were connecting Wits and the museum to the city, and ensuring the protection of the collection, in particular behind the “brick skin.”

Some aspects were not compromised, though. The goods lift was the most expensive item, says Charlton, while the climate control mechanism is world class.

The building contractors were brought on board before the architects were finished with their designs, a unique way feature of the conversion. This meant that the contractors’ input was incorporated into the design, reining it in a bit but producing a result that makes everyone happy.
“It has been a design choice, not only a cost issue. We have fallen in love with what we have,” smiles Charlton.

Standing behind the glass facing on to Jorissen Street, with its bustling traffic and constant stream of pedestrians, the museum exudes tranquillity. “It’s a calm space. It is conducive to display and artwork,” she adds.

And when asked what gives them the most satisfaction with the finished product, Garson says: “The public interaction with the building and the expressive brick container.”

And as an added bonus, Garson and Cohen have just won the architecture category in the Absolut VISI Designer of the Year awards for WAM. The awards were held in Cape Town on 2 March.

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